Transformation
Mathematically or physically, Transformation refers to bringing abount a change in position, orientation and/or form of an object.
Transformations can be classified in following ways.

Based on type:
 Translation
 Rotation
 Reflection
 Scaling
 Shearing

Based on whether the transformation alters the form of an object:
 Non Deformative: Translations, Rotations and Reflections are non deformative transformations
 Deformative: Scalings and Shearings are deformative transformations

Based on steps involved in transforming the object:
 Simple Transformations: These are transformations that can be accomplished in a single step and cannot be broken down into further simpler steps. Following are simple transformations:
 All Translations
 Rotations in 2D with respect to origin. Rotations in 3D with respect to origin along coordinate axes.
 Reflections in 2D across coordinate axes and in 3D along coordinate planes
 Non anchord Scalings and Shearings (i.e when the object is not anchord to a particular point/passes through that point)
Each of these transformation can be accomplished by multiplying the position vector of point by a single matrix.
 Composite Transformations: These are transformations that are a combination of 2 or more simple transformations. Following are composite transformations:
 Rotations in 2D or 3D with respect to any arbitrary point. Rotations in 3D along any arbitrary axis
 Reflection in 2D across and arbitrary line and in 3D accross an arbitrary plane
 Anchord Scalings and Shearings (i.e when the object is anchord to a particular point/passes through that point)
Each step in each of these transformation is accomplished by multiplying the position vector of point by a single matrix. For e.g if any transformation can be accomlished in 5 steps, then it shall involve multiplication of 5 matrices.